Stakeholder Identification and Analysis

Stakeholder Identification Objectives

In the stakeholder development processes, there is a need to understand the complexity of interests and motivations, evaluate and predict impacts, and assess human capacity. The exercise in stakeholder identification and analysis should be conducted early on to provide information regarding:

  • Individuals, groups and institutions that will be affected by and should benefit from health risk assessment/management; and
  • Individuals, groups and institutions who can influence, and contribute to, the health risk assessment and management processes.


Stakeholder identification is conducted in a step-wise analytical process as detailed below:

Step 1

In Step 1, review literature on the existing institutional arrangements for the management of chemicals of interest to the site and country.  Stakeholders with interests and/or involvement in POPs/chemical management are identified.

Step 2

In Step 2, a list of stakeholders is created and those with an interest are identified through the following questions:

  • Who uses the resource(s)/controls the site?
  • Who benefits from the use of the resource(s)/targeted chemicals?
  • Who has rights and responsibilities over the use and management of the targeted chemicals/resource(s)/hot spots?
  • Who makes decisions that affect the use and status of the resource(s), and who does not?

Step 3

In Step 3, stakeholder positions are determined and roles are assigned based on stakeholder type. The stakeholders are then categorized according to the role and position that each identified stakeholder could play in the project as described in the table below .

Table: Terms used for Defining of Player/Stakeholder Potential Roles.




Stakeholders that should be empowered and involved in most aspects of risk assessment, risk management and capacity building, and serve as national custodians of the POPs toolkit.

Key player

Stakeholders that should be involved in the risk assessment, risk management and capacity building, and are end-users of the POPs toolkit.


Stakeholders that should be informed on the risk assessment and risk management approach, and are end-users of the POPs toolkit and awareness raising products.

Potential player

Stakeholders that should be monitored and are users of awareness raising products.

Stakeholder Typology

Stakeholder typology (the study of stakeholder types) enables selection and prioritization from the list produced in Step 2. Typology is based not only on characteristics of the stakeholders themselves, but also on how managers perceive stakeholders and prioritize them in the integrated POPs health risk assessment and management. Stakeholder typology is based on power (influence), legitimacy (interest) and urgency (see Figure below). This assessment is a good way to identify stakeholders who should participate in meetings and training events and those that should have access to products in the POPs toolkit.

Figure:  Framework for Stakeholder Typology.

Power (influence), legitimacy (high or low interest) and urgency are dynamic variables. They can change due to certain decisions and activities, or required resources are redirected towards other activities. Therefore, determining stakeholders’ positions regarding hazardous chemical and POPs management should be updated regularly by the management agency concerned.

The outcome of a stakeholder position analysis exercise is synthesized and presented in a format (e.g. a matrix or a set of diagrams) that includes the key issues that need to be addressed in the planning process.

Identifying stakeholders is a step-by-step process
Source: Hatfield Consultants
Hatfield Consultants The World Bank funded by the Canadian POPs Trust Fund through the      
Canadian International Development Agency